2014 show 276 dec 17

fraus est celare fraudem, Tell me, ye that desire to be under the law, do ye not hear the law? Inside the court of the unknown yield.

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Tonight’s topic among others: the Word FRAUD! Lie means to exist, or to subsist in the Fiction! We Live in A Lie! Lets talk about fraud and;


Galatians 3 Kjv
1 O foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you, that ye should not obey the truth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth, crucified among you?


E. W. Bullinger Known for The Companion Bible Wiki


fore
Middle English for-, fore-, from Old English fore-, often for- or foran-, from fore (adv. & prep.), which was used as a prefix in Old English as in other Germanic languages with a sense of “before in time, rank, position,” etc., or designating the front part or earliest time.
given adj.
late 14c., “allotted, predestined,” past participle adjective from give (v.). From 1560s as “admitted, supposed, allowed as a supposition.” From late 14c. as “disposed, addicted.” Middle English also had a noun give, yeve “that which is given or offered freely.” The modern noun sense of “what is given, known facts” is from 1879. Given name (1827) so called because given at baptism.
noun n.
late 14c., from Anglo-French noun “name, noun,” from Old French nom, non (Modern French nom), from Latin nomen “name, noun” (see name (n.)). Old English used name to mean “noun.” Related: Nounal.


fraud n.
mid-14c., “criminal deception” (mid-13c. in Anglo-Latin); from Old French fraude “deception, fraud” (13c.), from Latin fraudem (nominative fraus) “a cheating, deceit,” of persons “a cheater, deceiver.” Not in Watkins; perhaps ultimately from PIE *dhreugh- “to deceive” (cognates: Sanskrit dhruti- “deception; error”). Meaning “a fraudulent production, something intended to deceive” is from 1650s. The meaning “impostor, deceiver, pretender; humbug” is attested from 1850. Pious fraud (1560s) is properly “deception practiced for the sake of what is deemed a good purpose;” colloquially used as “person who talks piously but is not pious at heart.”

fraus est celare fraudem. It is fraud to conceal a fraud. Anno: 50 ALR 807.
fraus legis. Fraud of the law; fraud upon the law.


fictio. A fiction.
fiction. In the sense of a fiction of law, a contrived condition or situation; the simulation of a status or condition with the purposeof accomplishing justice, albeit justice reached by devious means, as the fiction of casual ejector whereby the action of ejectment was converted into an action for the determination of title to real estate. 25 Am J2d Eject § 2.
As a literary work, a novel, a portrayal with imaginary characters. In pleading a false averment on the part of the plaintiff
which the defendant is not allowed to traverse, the object being to give the court jurisdiction. Snider v Newell, 132 NC 614,
625, 44 SE 354
.
fictione juris. Fiction of law. See fiction.
fiction of law. See fiction.
fictitious. Imaginary; not real; counterfeit; false; not genuine. State v Tinnin, 64 Utah 587, 232 P 543, 43 ALR 46, 48.


passover
The Passover in the Holy Family: Gathering Bitter Herbs Watercolor 1855-56 16 x 17inches

Easter Vs Passover

Nelson’s Bible Dictionary
“Easter was originally a pagan festival honoring Eostre, a Teutonic (Germanic) goddess of light and spring. At the time of the vernal equinox (the day in the spring when the sun crosses the equator and day and night are of equal length), sacrifices were offered in her honor. As early as the eighth century, the name was used to designate the annual Christian celebration of the resurrection of Chr-st. The only appearance of the word Easter (Kjv) is a mistranslation of pascha, the ordinary Greek word for ‘Passover’ (Acts 12:4).”
passover Vs easter

Happy-Easter-Rabbit-Egg-Pics
The psychedelic mushroom trip we call Easter.
Christian leaders attempt to fix global date for Easter
The archbishop of Canterbury has announced he is engaged in an ambitious plan to solve one of the oldest disagreements in Christianity – one dating back more than 1,600 years.


perversion n.
late 14c., “action of turning aside from truth, corruption, distortion” (originally of religious beliefs), from Latin perversionem (nominative perversio) “a turning about,” noun of action from past participle stem of pervertere (see pervert (v.)). Psychological sense of “disorder of sexual behavior in which satisfaction is sought through channels other than those of normal heterosexual intercourse” is from 1892, originally including homosexuality.

Perversions are defined as unnatural acts, acts contrary to nature, bestial, abominable, and detestable. Such laws are interpretable only in accordance with the ancient tradition of the English common law which … is committed to the doctrine that no sexual activity is justifiable unless its objective is procreation. [A.C. Kinsey, et.al., “Sexual Behavior in the Human Male,” 1948]
per
word-forming element meaning “through, throughout; thoroughly; entirely, utterly,” from Latin preposition per (see per (prep.)).
version n.
1580s, “a translation,” from Middle French version, from Medieval Latin versionem (nominative versio) “a turning, a translation,” from past participle stem of Latin vertere “to turn, change, alter, translate” (see versus). Also with a Middle English sense of “destruction;” the meaning “particular form of a description” is first attested 1788.


Jonah 1 Kjv
16 And the men dreaded the Lord with great dread, and offered hosts to the Lord, and vowed avows.
17 And the Lord made ready a great fish, that he should swallow Jonah; and Jonah was in the womb of the fish three days and three nights.
Jonah 2 Kjv
2 Then Jonah prayed unto the Lord his God out of the fish’s belly,
2 And said, I cried by reason of mine affliction unto the Lord, and he heard me; out of the belly of hell cried I, and thou heardest my voice.
3 For thou hadst cast me into the deep, in the midst of the seas; and the floods compassed me about: all thy billows and thy waves passed over me.


defender n.
c. 1300 (early 13c. as a surname), via Anglo-French, from Old French defendeor, agent noun from defendre (see defend). The Latin word in this sense was defensor.
defend v.
mid-13c., from Old French defendre (12c.) “defend, resist,” and directly from Latin defendere “ward off, protect, guard, allege in defense,” from de- “from, away” (see de-) + -fendere “to strike, push,” from PIE root *gwhen- “to strike, kill” (see bane). In the Mercian hymns, Latin defendet is glossed by Old English gescildeð. Related: Defended; defending.

Fidei defensorDefender of the Faith” has been one of the subsidiary titles of the English and later British monarchs since it was granted on 11 October, 1521 by Pope Leo X to King Henry VIII of England.

faith n.
mid-13c., faith, feith, fei, fai “faithfulness to a trust or promise; loyalty to a person; honesty, truthfulness,” from Anglo-French and Old French feid, foi “faith, belief, trust, confidence; pledge” (11c.), from Latin fides “trust, faith, confidence, reliance, credence, belief,” from root of fidere “to trust,” from PIE root *bheidh- “to trust” (source also of Greek pistis “faith, confidence, honesty;” see bid). For sense evolution, see belief. Accomodated to other English abstract nouns in -th (truth, health, etc.).

From early 14c. as “assent of the mind to the truth of a statement for which there is incomplete evidence,” especially “belief in religious matters” (matched with hope and charity). Since mid-14c. in reference to the Christian church or religion; from late 14c. in reference to any religious persuasion.

And faith is neither the submission of the reason, nor is it the acceptance, simply and absolutely upon testimony, of what reason cannot reach. Faith is: the being able to cleave to a power of goodness appealing to our higher and real self, not to our lower and apparent self. Matthew Arnold, “Literature Dogma,” 1873

From late 14c. as “confidence in a person or thing with reference to truthfulness or reliability,” also “fidelity of one spouse to another.” Also in Middle English “a sworn oath,” hence its frequent use in Middle English oaths and asseverations (par ma fay, mid-13c.; bi my fay, c. 1300).

titular adj.
1590s, from or based on Middle French titulaire (16c.), from Latin titulus (see title) + -ar. Related: Titulary.

Sales of Slaves.
Slave dealers usually offered their wares at public auction sales (Fig. 29). These were under the supervision of the aediles, who appointed the place and made rules and regulations to govern them. A tax was imposed on imported slaves and they were offered for sale with their feet whitened with chalk; those from the east had also their ears bored, a common sign of slavery among oriental peoples. As bids were asked for each slave he was made to mount a stone or platform, corresponding to the “block” familiar to the readers of our own history.
From his neck hung a scroll (titulus), setting forth his character and serving as a warrant for the purchaser. If the slave had defects not made known in this warrant the vendor was bound to take him back within six months or make good the loss to the buyer.
The chief items in the titulus were the age and nationality of the slave, and his freedom from such common defects as chronic ill-health, especially epilepsy, and tendencies to thievery, running away, and suicide. In spite of the guarantee the purchaser took care to examine the slaves as closely as possible.
For this reason they were commonly stripped, made to move around, handled freely by the purchaser, and even examined by physicians. If no warrant was given by the dealer, a cap (pilleus) was put on the slave’s head at the time of the sale and the purchaser took all risks. The dealer might also offer the slaves at private sale, and this was the rule in the case of all of unusual value and especially of marked personal beauty…
The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Private Life of the Romans, by Harold Whetstone Johnston. The Private Life of the Romans


designation n.
late 14c., “action of pointing out,” from Old French designacion or directly from Latin designationem (nominative designatio) “a marking out, specification,” noun of action from past participle stem of designare (see design (v.)). Meaning “descriptive name” is from 1824.
design v.
1540s, from Latin designare “mark out, devise, choose, designate, appoint,” from de- “out” (see de-) + signare “to mark,” from signum “a mark, sign” (see sign (n.)). Originally in English with the meaning now attached to designate; many modern uses of design are metaphoric extensions. Related: Designed; designing.
design n.
1580s, from Middle French desseign “purpose, project, design,” from Italian disegno, from disegnare “to mark out,” from Latin designare “to mark out” (see design (v.)).
nation n.
c. 1300, from Old French nacion “birth, rank; descendants, relatives; country, homeland” (12c.) and directly from Latin nationem (nominative natio) “birth, origin; breed, stock, kind, species; race of people, tribe,” literally “that which has been born,” from natus, past participle of nasci “be born” (Old Latin gnasci; see genus). Political sense has gradually predominated, but earliest English examples inclined toward the racial meaning “large group of people with common ancestry.” Older sense preserved in application to North American Indian peoples (1640s). Nation-building first attested 1907 (implied in nation-builder).
de
active word-forming element in English and in many words inherited from French and Latin, from Latin de “down, down from, from, off; concerning” (see de), also used as a prefix in Latin usually meaning “down, off, away, from among, down from,” but also “down to the bottom, totally” hence “completely” (intensive or completive), which is its sense in many English words. As a Latin prefix it also had the function of undoing or reversing a verb’s action, and hence it came to be used as a pure privative — “not, do the opposite of, undo” — which is its primary function as a living prefix in English, as in defrost (1895), defuse (1943), etc. Compare also dis-.
SIG,
a Saxon word signifying victory. is used in names, as in Sigbert, bright victory. In answers to the Greek vix in Nicander, and the Latin vic, in Victorinus.
sig Strong’s No.:H7873 pursuing
Transliteration: ώîyg
Pronunciation: seeg
Definition: From H7734; a withdrawl (into a private place): – pursuing.
Occurences: pursuing (1)
nay
word of negation, late 12c., from a Scandinavian source such as Old Norse nei, compound of ne “not” (see un-) + ei “ever” (see aye.
, ; adv.No, not; non.
Forms: Sc. pre-17 nai, pre-17 nay, pre-17 17– na; Eng. regional na,
na, conj. Forms: Sc. pre-17 nai, pre-17 nay, pre-17 17– na; Eng. regional (north-west.) 19– na. Etymology : Perhaps formed within English, by compounding. Etymons: English na , no conj.
tau (Τ τ) :
nineteenth letter of the Greek alphabet, from Hebrew taw, last letter of the Hebrew alphabet, literally “sign, mark.”
In ancient times, Tau was used as a symbol for life and/or resurrection, whereas the eighth letter of the Greek alphabet, theta, was considered the symbol of death.
In Biblical times, the Taw was put on men to distinguish those who lamented sin, although newer versions of the Bible have replaced the ancient term “Taw” with “mark” (Ezekiel 9:4) or “signature” (Job 31:35).

The sign of the cross. The mark of Cain… The image of containment or suppression Letter Perfect p301. David Sacks. 2003 – ISBN 0-7679-1173-3

ion
word-forming element attached to verbs, making nouns of state, condition, or action, from French -ion or directly from Latin –ionem (nominative -io, genitive -ionis), common suffix forming abstract nouns from verbs.
In Latin found extremely commonly in formations from verbs, typically on the past participial or supine stem (in -t- , -s- , -x- ), e.g. damnātiō damnation n.
Formations within English (chiefly on verbs ultimately of Latin origin) become common from the 16th cent.


addition n.
late 14c., “action of adding numbers;” c. 1400, “that which is added,” from Old French adition “increase, augmentation” (13c.), from Latin additionem (nominative additio) “an adding to, addition,” noun of action from past participle stem of addere (see add). Phrase in addition to “also” is from 1680s.
additional adj.
1640s, from addition + -al (1). Related: Additionally.


dummy n.
1590s, “mute person,” from dumb (adj.) + -y (3). Extended by 1845 to “figure representing a person.” Used in card games (originally whist) since 1736. Meaning “dolt, blockhead” is from 1796.


Proverbs 11:15 Kjv
15 He that is surety for a stranger shall smart for it: and he that hateth suretiship is sure.


gentilitious adj.
1. Characteristic of a ‘gentile’; pagan. Obs.—1
2. Of, pertaining to, or characteristic of, a nation; national. (= gentilitial adj. 1.)
a. Of or pertaining to a gens or family. (= gentilitial adj. 2.)


Frescos+of+the+Brancacci+Chapel+in+Santa+Maria+del+Carmine+in+Florence+scenes-1600x1200-15094
Expulsion from the Garden of Eden. Masaccio. 1425.

circumcised adj.
a. Having the prepuce cut off; that has undergone circumcision. (Allusively used for ‘Jewish’ or ‘Muslim’.)
b. fig. Spiritually chastened or purified.
2. Cut or shorn round. Obs.
3. Cut short, curtailed, circumscribed. Obs.
circumcise n.
mid-13c., “to cut off the foreskin,” from Old French circoncisier “circumcise” (12c., Modern French circoncire), from Latin circumcisus, past participle of circumcidere “to cut round, to cut trim, to cut off” (see circumcision). Related: Circumcised; circumcising.
skin v.
late 14c., “to remove the skin from” (originally of circumcision), from skin (n.). As “to have (a particular kind of) skin” from c. 1400. In 19c. U.S. colloquial use, “to strip, fleece, plunder;” hence skin-game, one in which one player has no chance against the others (as with a stacked deck), the type of con game played in a skin-house. Skin the cat in gymnastics is from 1845. Related: Skinned; skinning.
fleecev.
1530s in the literal sense of “to strip (a sheep) of fleece,” from fleece (n.). From 1570s in the figurative meaning “to cheat, swindle, strip of money.” Related: Fleeced; fleecer; fleecing.

Genesis 3 Kjv
21 Unto Adam also and to his wife did the Lord God make coats of skins, and clothed them.


cognomen n.
1809, from Latin com- “with” (see co-) + (g)nomen “name” (see name (n.)). Third or family name of a Roman citizen (Caius Julius Cæsar).
cognate adj.
1640s, from Latin cognatus “of common descent,” from com- “together” (see co-) + gnatus, past participle of gnasci, older form of nasci “to be born” (see genus). Words that are cognates are cousins, not siblings. As a noun, from 1754.
cog v. Ods.
From contextual evidence it would seem that ‘cogging’ generally designated some sleight of hand, made use of to control the falling of a die; occasionally it may mean the substitution of a false die for the true one. The notion that it meant ‘to load the dice’ appears to be a mistake of modern dictionaries, which has, however, strongly influenced the use of the word by modern novelists…


code n.
b. A systematic collection or digest of the laws of a country, or of those relating to a particular subject.
a. A system or collection of rules or regulations on any subject.
b. Telegr. A system of words arbitrarily used for other words or for phrases, to secure brevity and secrecy; also attrib., as in code telegram, code word.


diction n.
1540s, “a word;” 1580s, “expression of ideas in words,” from Late Latin dictionem (nominative dictio) “a saying, expression, word,” noun of action from dic-, past participle stem of Latin dicere “speak, tell, say” (source of French dire “to say”), related to dicare “proclaim, dedicate,” from PIE root *deik- “to point out” (cognates: Sanskrit dic- “point out, show,” Greek deiknynai “to show, to prove,” Latin digitus “finger,” Old High German zeigon, German zeigen “to show,” Old English teon “to accuse,” tæcan “to teach”).

Another cognate is Greek dike “custom, usage,” and, via the notion of “right as dependent on custom,” “law, a right; a judgment; a lawsuit, court case, trial; penalty awarded by a judge.”


Forgery bond
Corporate Suretyship .pdf by G. W. Crist, Jr. McGraw-Hill, 1939.
https://christianremedyinlaw.files.wordpress.com/2016/01/crist_forgery_bonds.jpg


A right royal Birth certificate
https://christianremedyinlaw.files.wordpress.com/2016/01/royal_birth_certif.jpg?w=840
The Royals themselves may not whats going on with this document. But the Registra sure as shit did.

2014 show 108 march 26

Native inhabitants and talk about the surname

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Tonight’s topic among others: Clint is ill, Native inhabitants and talk about the surname and;


childhood n.
Old English cild “fetus, infant, unborn or newly born person,” from Proto-Germanic *kiltham (cognates: Gothic kilþei “womb,” inkilþo “pregnant;” Danish kuld “children of the same marriage;” Old Swedish kulder “litter;” Old English cildhama “womb,” lit. “child-home”); no certain cognates outside Germanic. “App[arently] originally always used in relation to the mother as the ‘fruit of the womb'” [Buck]. Also in late Old English, “a youth of gentle birth” (archaic, usually written childe). In 16c.-17c. especially “girl child.”

The wider sense “young person before the onset of puberty” developed in late Old English. Phrase with child “pregnant” (late 12c.) retains the original sense. The sense extension from “infant” to “child” also is found in French enfant, Latin infans. Meaning “one’s own child; offspring of parents” is from late 12c. (the Old English word was bearn; see bairn). Figurative use from late 14c. Most Indo-European languages use the same word for “a child” and “one’s child,” though there are exceptions (such as Latin liberi/pueri).

The difficulty with the plural began in Old English, where the nominative plural was at first cild, identical with the singular, then c.975 a plural form cildru (genitive cildra) arose, probably for clarity’s sake, only to be re-pluraled late 12c. as children, which is thus a double plural. Middle English plural cildre survives in Lancashire dialect childer and in Childermas.

An infant n.
Forms: Also ME fant, fawnt.
Etymology: Aphetic form of Old French enfaunt, enfant:

faunt n.
1382 Bible (Wycliffite, E.V.) Lev. xii. 3 The eiȝt day the fawnt shal be circumcidid Odj.

C. The lnitlial letter or the word’ Codex.’
used by Bome ‘Writers in ciling the Code of justinian. Tay!. Civil Law, 24.
It was also the letter inscribed on the bal­lots by which, among the Romans, jurors
voted to condemn an accused party.
It was the initial letter of condemno, I condemn.
Tay!. Civil Law. 192

hild v. Obs. Trans.
a. To flay, skin.
b. To strip off (the skin).

chi n.
22nd letter of the Greek alphabet, representing a –kh– sound (see ch). The letter is shaped like an X, and so the Greek letter name was used figuratively to signify such a shape or arrangement (as in khiasma “two things placed crosswise;” khiastos “arranged diagonally; marked with an X;” khiazein “to mark with an ‘X’, to write the letter ‘X'”). Some dialects used chi to represent the -ks- sound properly belonging to xi; Latin picked this up and the sound value of chi in Latin-derived alphabets is now that of English X.
chiasma n.
“a crossing,” 1832, medical Latin, from Greek khiasma “two things placed crosswise,” which is related to khiasmos (see chiasmus). In cytology from 1911.
chiasmus n.
in grammar, inversion of word order, 1871, Latinized from Greek khiasmos “a placing crosswise, diagonal arrangement” (see chi).

Adam, first of men,
To first of women, Eve
.
[“Paradise Lost”]

X
The entire entry for X in Johnson’s dictionary (1756) is: “X is a letter, which, though found in Saxon words, begins no word in the English language.” Most English words beginning in -x- are of Greek origin or modern commercial coinages. East Anglian in 14c. showed a tendency to use -x- for initial sh-, sch- (such as xal for shall), which didn’t catch on but seems an improvement over the current system. As a symbol of a kiss on a letter, etc., it is recorded from 1765. In malt liquor, XX denoted “double quality” and XXX “strongest quality” (1827).

Algebraic meaning “unknown quantity” (1660 in English, from French), sometimes is said to be from medieval use, originally a crossed -r-, in that case probably from Latin radix (see root n.). Other theories trace it to Arabic (Klein), but a more prosaic explanation says Descartes (1637) took x, y, z, the last three letters of the alphabet, for unknowns to correspond to a, b, c, used for known quantities.

Used allusively for “unknown person” from 1797, “something unknown” since 1859. As a type of chromosome, attested from 1902 (first so called in German; Henking, 1891). To designate “films deemed suitable for adults only,” first used 1950 in Britain; adopted in U.S. Nov. 1, 1968. The XYZ Affair in American history (1797) involved French agents designated by those letters.

ild An obsolete dialectal form of yield. It occurs in the phrase God ild, for God yield. See under God.

yield n.
Old English gield “payment, sum of money; service, offering, worship;” from the source of yield v.. Extended sense of “production” (as of crops) is first attested mid-15c. Earliest English sense survives in financial “yield from investments.”

hood
word-forming element meaning “state or condition of being,” from Old English -had “condition, quality, position” (as in cildhad “childhood,” preosthad “priesthood,” werhad “manhood”), cognate with German -heit/-keit, Dutch -heid, Old Frisian and Old Saxon -hed, all from Proto-Germanic *haidus “manner, quality,” literally “bright appearance,” from PIE (s)kai- (1) “bright, shining” (Cognates: Sanskrit ketu “brightness, appearance”). Originally a free-standing word (see hade); in Modern English it survives only in this suffix


circumcised adj.
a. Having the prepuce cut off; that has undergone circumcision. (Allusively used for ‘Jewish’ or ‘Muslim’.)
b. fig. Spiritually chastened or purified.
2. Cut or shorn round. Obs.
3. Cut short, curtailed, circumscribed Obs.

circumcise n.
mid-13c., “to cut off the foreskin,” from Old French circoncisier “circumcise” (12c., Modern French circoncire), from Latin circumcisus, past participle of circumcidere “to cut round, to cut trim, to cut off” (see circumcision). Related: Circumcised; circumcising.

skin v.
late 14c., “to remove the skin from” (originally of circumcision), from skin (n.). As “to have (a particular kind of) skin” from c. 1400. In 19c. U.S. colloquial use, “to strip, fleece, plunder;” hence skin-game, one in which one player has no chance against the others (as with a stacked deck), the type of con game played in a skin-house. Skin the cat in gymnastics is from 1845. Related: Skinned; skinning.

fleece v.
1530s in the literal sense of “to strip (a sheep) of fleece,” from fleece (n.). From 1570s in the figurative meaning “to cheat, swindle, strip of money.” Related: Fleeced; fleecer; fleecing.

Genesis 3 Kjv
21 Unto Adam also and to his wife did the Lord God make coats of skins, and clothed them.


surname n.
c. 1300, “name, title, or epithet added to a person’s name,” from sur “above” (from Latin super-; see sur- (1)) + name (n.); modeled on Anglo-French surnoun “surname” (early 14c.), variant of Old French sornom, from sur “over” + nom “name.” As “family name” from late 14c.

An Old English word for this was freonama, literally “free name.” Meaning “family name” is first found late 14c. Hereditary surnames existed among Norman nobility in England in early 12c., among the common people they began to be used 13c., increasingly frequent until near universal by end of 14c. The process was later in the north of England than the south. The verb is attested from 1510s. Related: Surnamed.
surprefix.
word-forming element meaning “over, above, beyond, in addition,” especially in words from Anglo-French and Old French, from Old French sour-, sor-, sur-, from Latin super (see super-).


https://christianremedyinlaw.files.wordpress.com/2016/01/christ-and-the-canaanite-woman.jpg?w=840


gentile n.
“one who is not a Jew,” c. 1400; earlier “one who is not a Christian, a pagan” (late 14c.), from Late Latin noun use of Latin gentilis “of the same family or clan, of or belonging to a Roman gens,” from gens (genitive gentis) “race, clan” (see genus, and compare gentle).

The Latin adjective also meant “of or belonging to the same nation,” hence, as a noun, gentiles (plural) might mean “men of family; persons belonging to the same family; fellow countrymen, kinsmen,” but also “foreigners, barbarians” (as opposed to Romans), those bound only by the Jus Gentium, the “law of nations,” defined as “the law that natural reason establishes among all mankind and is followed by all peoples alike.”

The Latin word then was used in the Vulgate to translate Greek ethnikos (see ethnic), from ta ethne “the nations,” which translated Hebrew ha goyim “the (non-Jewish) nations” (see goy). Hence in Late Latin, after the Christianization of Rome, gentilis also could mean “pagans, heathens,” as opposed to Christians. Based on Scripture, gentile also was used by Mormons (1847) and Shakers (1857) to refer to those not of their profession.
goy n.
“a gentile, a non-Jew” (plural goyim), 1835, from Hebrew goy “people, nation;” in Mishnaic and Modern Hebrew, also “gentile” (compare gentile). The fem. form of the Hebrew word entered Middle French as gouge “a wench” (15c.).


pledge v.
c. 1400, “to promise” (something to someone), “to give over as security for repayment,” also “promise faith to,” from pledge (n.) and from Old French plegier, from plege (n.). From mid-15c. as “to stand surety for, be responsible for;” late 15c. as “to mortgage.” Meaning “put (someone) under oath” is from 1570s; sense of “to solemnly promise or guarantee” is from 1590s, as is sense “to drink a toast.” Related: Pledged; pledging.
pledge n.
mid-14c., “surety, bail,” from Old French plege (Modern French pleige) “hostage, security, bail,” probably from Frankish *plegan “to guarantee,” from *pleg-, a West Germanic root meaning “have responsibility for” (cognates: Old Saxon plegan “vouch for,” Middle Dutch plien “to answer for, guarantee,” Old High German pflegan “to care for, be accustomed to,” Old English pleon “to risk the loss of, expose to danger;” see plight (v.)).

Meaning “allegiance vow attested by drinking with another” is from 1630s. Sense of “solemn promise” first recorded 1814, though this notion is from 16c. in the verb. Weekley notes the “curious contradiction” in pledge (v.) “to toast with a drink” (1540s) and pledge (n.) “the vow to abstain from drinking” (1833). Meaning “student who has agreed to join a fraternity or sorority” dates from 1901.